Sociological studios Sociological studios is an international academic sociological journal published peer-reviewed full-text articles with immediate open access to them Волинський національний університет імені Лесі Українки (43025, м. Луцьк, просп. Волі, 13) en-US Sociological studios 2306-3971 Factors Influencing Electoral Choice: the Potential of Factorial Design <p>The article discusses the cognitive capabilities of factorial survey in the study of factors affecting the electoral choice of candidates for deputies to the Verkhovna Rada elected by majority voting. The focus of the article is the consideration of theoretical concepts of electoral choice and the selection of its determinants. The expediency of using established factors to study the electoral choice of ukrainian voters is illustrated on the example of empirical research conducted in Ukraine. The article also reflects the results of a pilot study using the method of factorial survey, which established the significance of such factors of candidate choice as the attitude of the voter to the party that supports the candidate; personal sympathy for the candidate; assessments of the candidate’s ability to best solve the problems of the district; the candidate’s chances of winning. At the same time, we did not find evidence of the significance of the factor of the immediate environment approval on the choice of a candidate. In addition, the paper provides evidence of the possible heterogeneity of the influence of established factors in terms of groups with different levels of interest in politics and the frequency of discussion of political issues with relatives. Possible directions of further research of electoral choice factors are offered.</p> Daniil Karakai Mykola Sydorov Oleksii Sereda Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-29 2022-06-29 1(20) 06 16 10.29038/2306-3971-2022-01-06-16 Social polarization: towards the text mining study <p>This article suggests a way to concretize the concept of social polarization, which will be most suitable for a) empirical operatio­nalization; b) a complete description of existing social conflicts; c) will be consistent with existing sociological theories. The implementation of this task opens the way to studying this phenomenon through the method of text mining. We see two main problems with the concept of social polarization in sociology: (1) Social polarization is used as a beautiful metaphor to describe contemporary political situations, not as a strong operationalized concept. The concept must create vast opportunities to study social reality, interpret more processes; (2) The mathematic interpretation of social polarization is conducted on somewhat idealized distributions; there is a lack of real empirical data verification. These two problems also create one big problem: mathematical conceptualization of social polarization and empirical studies of social polarization are unrelated. We propose a way to solve this problem through the construction of our social polarization theoretical framework. The way that allowed us to do this was in the concretization of social polarization and its connection with sociological theories of conflict. The article’s key idea is to show that this concept is suitable for operationalization for two reasons: its ability to describe the causes and nature of social conflicts and its measurability.</p> <p>This article also discusses the main modern social polarization theories, their features, advantages, and disadvantages. Since the concept of social polarization is mostly the focus of political science research, the author’s goal was to find opportunities to use this concept in sociology and the ideas that will allow it. There are currently two approaches to studying this issue: the party association approach and the opinion-based group approach. An important task, which was also solved in this article, is the concept’s connection with the sociological concepts of conflict. The path was found using the concept of Lipset and Rokkan. This concept’s key advantage is the combination of social inequality, conflict, attitudes, and social distance. Typically, these concepts are used separately to explain social cleavages. The concept of polarization, in this case, allows them to be integrated into a single whole</p> Roman Kyrychenko Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-29 2022-06-29 1(20) 17 24 10.29038/2306-3971-2022-01-17-24 Modified SERVPERF: Analysis of Questions <p>The article is about modified SERVPERF which is used to measure the quality of educational services in higher educational institutes (HEI). It consists of 26 questions grouped into five dimensions. SERVPERF is included in the UNiDOS questionnaire. UNiDOS is a monitoring survey which is conducted by the Faculty of Sociology, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. The aim of our research is to identify questions that are incomprehensible for respondents (students) and / or related to situations they have not encountered. Probably it is need to transform them in the modified SERVPERF without reducing of the validity. We analysed the percentage of students who choose the answer “Difficult to answer or I do not know about it” and perform a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). It is found that the question “Teachers pay particular attention to the students with disabilities” should be transformed in the modified SERVPERF. This is most likely due to the small proportion of students with disabilities, the predominant “distance” of learning and the fact that “pay attention” is usual and is not positioned as something special and extraordinary. Most of the respondents cannot assess the teachers’ attitude towards students with disabilities. Also after the removal of this question from the modified SERVPERF CFA model fits better.</p> Ruslana Moskotina Mykola Sydorov Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-29 2022-06-29 1(20) 25 31 10.29038/2306-3971-2022-01-25-31 Online Focus Groups: Specifics of Organization and Conduct <p>The article provides a detailed analysis of key points of organizing and conducting online focus groups, identifies opportunities and limitations of the method, ways to eliminate / mitigate possible problems that a researcher may encounter using this method. Developments of own and experience of colleagues who began to actively use online focus groups during the quarantine period are systematized by such defining characteristics as: 1) expediency of using this method. Depending on the research topic and specifics of the target audience, online groups work on a goal of this research, which target auditory are active internet users and/or closed groups, groups of experts, small and simultaneously wide-spread in space; 2) ways and features of recruiting participants. Recruiting is provided not only by online panels and by using “snow-ball” method, but through the search in network interest groups, but, with required preliminary interview to define real motivation to participate and technical readiness of potential participants for online form of group work. If necessary, additional preliminary training is provided; 3) the specifics of the guide for the online focus group, which needs to carefully detalize for all the questions, instructions, regarding possible standard or non-standard situations, technical issues, in particular, due to not stable internet connection for all the participants; 4) problems and ways to maintain group dynamics, which are heading in direction of maximal proximity to online format, imitation of its conditions, variety of question forms, using of group tasks. Deciding of hardness/softness of requirements for focus-group participants organizing conditions needs special attention. 5) methods and techniques that have proven their effectiveness for the online format of focus groups – testing if internet-sites, video clips, some products and services, projective methodology usage etc.; 6) features of the moderator’s work (preparation, burnout problems overcoming etc.).</p> Oksana Oliinyk Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-29 2022-06-29 1(20) 32 40 10.29038/2306-3971-2022-01-32-40 Problematic of the Subject in Modern Ukrainian Social Process <p>The article analyzes the problem of subjectivity as a person’s potential ability to acquire the status of an active subject of social process. The formation of the individual-subject in modern Ukrainian society occurs in the context of the desire of the country as a collective subject to become a political subject. The practice of implementing two parallel processes in Ukraine looks contradictory; its specificity gives reasons for publications in media, while there is no scientific discussion on the problem of subjectivity in Ukraine.</p> <p>The author understands subjectivity as a process of forming an elaborate psycho-cultural complex of personality. They identify a basic element in it of the individual identification with a certain ideal of a person as such. It is formed by theoretical knowledge in the field of philosophy and social-humanitarian sciences as well as the cultural traditions of the people. The formation of individual personal subjectivity by a significant part of citizens becomes a condition for the successful subjectivity of the country.</p> <p>Based on the facts of the modern social process in Ukraine, the author suggest that in Ukrainian society the generally accepted scientific image of a special subject has not formed yet.</p> <p>The purpose of the article is to indicate a problem in the representation of a person in educational texts in higher education. The author show that today's explanation of a person in a world that becomes more complicated and represents a field of competition of social entities in educational texts does not satisfy the needs of Ukrainian students as generations of creators of a new political subject - Ukraine.</p> <p>The author claim that based on the challenges Ukrainian society is facing, the young generation should receive subjective-oriented knowledge which would allow to operate with such renewed concepts and concepts that explain the meaning of the subjectivity and ways of its implementation in a modern poly-subjective society.</p> Yuliia Yemelianova Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-29 2022-06-29 1(20) 57 64 10.29038/2306-3971-2022-01-57-64 The Problem of Closed Institutions of Public Power in the Digital Society: a Comparative Analysis of the Post-Soviet Countries <p>The aim of the article is to study the peculiarities of the functioning of modern political systems in the post-Soviet space on the example of Russia and Ukraine, by analyzing such elements as openness, closed institutions of public power and the level of trust in power by citizens. The article analyzes the problem of the existence of modern political society in Russia and Ukraine through the manifestation of such trends as the secrecy of public power, the development of corruption, reducing the level of trust in government. The author attempts to correlate the categories of "dictatorship" as a form of political power and "democracy" as democracy. One of the characteristic manifestations of the absence of real democracy was also described - the progressive gap in society between government and citizens, which was defined as multifaceted and complex (economic, historical, social, ideological context), but they allow government institutions to abstract from the source their powers - the people. Among the many features that characterize the authorities of a democratic system, according to the author, one of the most important is the openness of their work, the preconditions of which were analyzed in detail and covered in the article. This is especially relevant for representative bodies.</p> Olena Klymenko Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-29 2022-06-29 1(20) 41 48 10.29038/2306-3971-2022-01-41-48 The Role of Manipulative Technologies in Commercial Advertising <p>The aim of the article is to study the role of manipulative technologies of commercial advertising in motivating the individual to mass consumption, simplifying the perception of social reality and the formation of sustainable uncritical consumer behavior. This problem is becoming increasingly important due to the uncontrolled spread of methods of manipulative influences in modern society, which according to the author is due to intensive digitization and acts as a destructive factor that disrupts key socialization processes. As this problem is insufficiently studied by the author, an attempt was made to analyze the key scientific paradigms for the development and implementation of manipulative technologies in commercial advertising, as well as the role of the media, social and Internet networks. The types and channels of distribution of commercial advertising are covered separately, the scheme of imposing the opinion on the consumer on making a final decision to make a purchase is described. Particular attention is paid to the study of key principles of manipulative technologies, in particular, possible strategies and tactics of advertising influences. The role of virtual interaction in the recruitment process was studied separately.</p> <p>Advertising market research today is unsystematic, fragmentary and comparative, and therefore, monitoring the situation does not give scientists a complete picture of the level of implementation of manipulative technologies in the digital society, which makes it impossible to predict possible prospects for social transformations in consumer behavior and, consequently, future social practices may develop with abnormalities. The scientific achievements that exist today are incomplete and require further research in the field of advertising communications. The development of information technology and the change in the basic principles of social communication, associated with the transfer of large amounts of information to global virtual networks, requires sociologists to conduct thorough research into consumer behavior technologies that differ from previously used, because the communication act classic model.</p> Andris Petersons Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-29 2022-06-29 1(20) 49 56 10.29038/2306-3971-2022-01-49-56