Subjective and Objective Components of the Evaluation of Threats in a Complex System of Sociological Monitoring of the Safety of the Individual
In the article the problems of organizing and conducting monitoring studies in the field of personal safety related to the establishment of a system of basic indicators (benchmarks) for the collection of primary empirical data. The theoretical and methodological principles of measuring the integral index of the level of safety which unites objective and subjective assessment of threats are characterized. Attention is concentrated on the understanding of the states of personal and collective security, the nature of the relationship of objective and subjective perception of social reality. The categories of security as a challenge, risk, threat, and danger are reviewed. Among the objective criteria of safety the quantitatively measured natural, technological and social indicators by statistical authorities are allocated. Subjective criteria include indices of anxiety, fear, and inclination to risk, insecurity, trust and confidence in the future. Defining safety as a complex entity, which involves the formation of motivation of personal security, the development of the complex knowledge and skills the modern recognition of potential security threats knowledge of the standard rules of behavior in extreme situations, ability to implement actions towards self-preservation, in the article it is argued the choice of subjective indicators for assessment of threats to the security of human life. Further development of the proposed method will allow optimizing the existing system of protection from hazards to ensure the safety of functioning and development as a particular individual, and society as a whole.
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