Ukrainian Nation: Formation or Revival of Identity?




Russo-Ukrainian war, national identity, historical memory, culture, consciousness


The article attempts to scientifically reflect the prerequisites and semantic causes of russian aggression, which lie in an attempt to level Ukrainian identity as the determining basis for the existence and development of the nation. The idea of destroying everything Ukrainian has been dragging on for centuries, choosing different forms and methods. One of its tools was an artificially created inferiority complex, which was embodied through Russification.

The russian-soviet empire tried for centuries to destroy the Ukrainian language, limiting the publication of books, modifying words and terms. Even during independence, there was a politicization of the language issue. The Ukrainian culture was also distorted, which the empire showed as primitive. The real history was replaced by pseudo-historical facts, which said that the Ukrainians do not have their own elite.

To restore national identity, it is necessary to revive the historical memory that forms the historical consciousness and cultural code of the nation. It is they who testify that we are one nation, with its own territory, culture.

In order to realize themselves and take their place among the peoples of the world, Ukrainians need objects of modern pride from the technological, scientific, information or economic spheres that would be progressive and characterize Ukraine as a postmodern and innovative state.


Bogomolov, O. V., Danylov, S. I., Semivolos, I. M., & Yavorska, G. M. (2005). Islamic identity in Ukraine. Kyiv: AMES, 130.

Bukrieieva, I., & Afanasieva, L. (2022). The Markers of Territorial Identity in Melitopol, Ukraine. Journal of Developing Societies, 38(2), 144–165.

Dashkevych, Ya. (2011). How Muscovy appropriated the history of Kyivan Rus. Learn to tell the truth with a true mouth. Kyiv: Tempora, 828.

Dembitskyi, S., Kyrychenko, R., Salnikova, S., & Sydorov, M. (2022). The Value Dimension of Public Opinion in Ukraine during the Full Scale War and Its Role for Post-War Reconstruction. Sociological Studios, 2(21), 42–56.

Hrushetskyi, A. (2023). Dynamics of Trust in Social Institutions in 2021–2022. KIIS. Retrieved January 13, 2023 from

Identity: how to understand that I am Ukrainian? (2022). Radio Freedom. Retrieved August 25, 2022 from

Kuzio, T. (1998). Ukraine. State and Nation Building. London: Routledge.

Kyrychenko, R., & Salnikova, S. (2022). Dynamics of Aggressive Discourse on Ukraine and the West in the Russian Pro-Government Media in 2000-2022. European Journal of Transformation Studies, 12(2), 172–191.

Liubyva, T. (2022). Civic identity of Ukrainians before and during the war. In: Ukrainian society in wartime. Kyiv: Institute of Sociology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 284–292.

Magda, Y. (2014). The Challenges of Hybrid Warfare: Information Aspect. Scientific Papers of the Legislation Institute of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, 5, 138–142.

Masenko, L. (2022). How the USSR repressed the Ukrainian language. Local History. Retrieved June 13, 2022 from

Motyl, A. J. (2022). A gang rape in Ukraine. Facts & Arts. Retrieved April 12, 2022 from https://www.fact¬

Nagorna, L. P. (2005). National identity. Encyclopedia of the history of Ukraine: Vol. 3. Kyiv: Naukova dumka, 416–417.

Ogrenchuk, A. (2022). The Kremlin’s intentions: why Russia’s war against Ukraine is a genocide of the Ukrainian people. Radio Freedom. Retrieved August 04, 2022 from

Ohienko, I. (1918). Ukrainian culture. A brief history of the cultural life of the Ukrainian people. Kyiv: E. Chere-povskyi Publishing House, 272.

Onuch, O. (2023). European Ukrainians and their fight against Russian invasion. Nations and Nationalism, 29(1), 53–62.

Rymarenko, Yu. I. (1995). National development of Ukraine: problems and prospects. Kyiv: Yurinkom, 272.

Salnikova, S., Klymenko, E., & Yemelianova, Y. (2022). Features of Consolidation of the Ukrainian Nation in the Conditions of Decentralization. Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, Springer, Cham, 315, 329–340.

Seventeenth National Survey: Identity. Patriotism. Values (August 17–18, 2022). Sociological group “Rating”. Retrieved August 23, 2022 from

Stepyko, M., & Chernenko, T. (2017). Ukrainian Identity as Defining Ambush Countering Russian Aggression. Strategic Priorities, 3 (44), 178–183.

Tarapon, O., & Potapenko, R. (2021). Russification Policy in Ukraine as a Means of Cultural Assimilation: Historical Dimension. Ethnic History of European Nations, 63, 121–127.

Tkachenko, O. (2021). Why Ukrainians should realize the importance of national identity. Ukrainian Pravda. Retrieved February 22, 2021 from

Veira-Ramos, A., & Liubyva, T. (2020). Ukrainian Identities in Transformation. In: Veira-Ramos, A., Liubyva, T., Golovakha, E. (eds) Ukraine in Transformation. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Vikhrov, M. (2021). Oleksii Sokyrko: «The lack of knowledge about one’s elite in the past forms an inferiority complex in a modern Ukrainian». The Ukrainian Week, 33 (717). Retrieved April 29, 2023 from

Who are we? Portrait of Ukrainians through the eyes of Ukrainians. (2021). Ukrainian Institute for the Future. Retrieved September 29, 2021 from¬ra¬y-i¬ncziv-2/