External Labour Migration in Ukraine at the Beginning of the XXI Century: the Sociological Dimension of Social Perspectives
Keywords:population migration (human migration), external labour migration, social system, donor country, concepts of migration, sociology of migration, systems theory
The purpose of the article is a brief analysis of the phenomenon of Ukrainian external labour migration from the position of sociology where it is considered as one of the
constituent elements of the social system of society. The role and significance of external labour migration in the internal system process is clarified. The opinion of theorists and practitioners regarding the factors, content and prospects of the process of external labour migration in Ukraine is given.
Researchers also point out the changes in the hierarchy of motives that predetermine labour migration abroad. In the 1990s, the main reason for migration was to improve economic conditions, for example: to earn more in order to buy a flat or to build a house; to buy a car or other expensive durable goods; to accumulate start-up capital to start their own business; and so on. Nowadays, for the first time, 12 to 13 % of people state that the main reason for migration is dissatisfaction with the political situation in Ukraine. The lack of rapid and effective reforms is reflected in the mood of people and this causes a desire to go to another country for work or even for permanent resettlement.
The result of the work is the author's understanding of some characteristics of the future state of Ukrainian society, which is in dynamics after the events of 2014. It is concluded that the preservation of high rates of labour migration for several more years should be considered as the main factor in the transformation of the social system in Ukraine. Its consequences can be, first of all, simplification of the elemental base of the social system, reduction of the positive activity of its subjects, activation of the process of «uncontrollable chaos», and, finally, weakness of the system when influenced externally.
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